Human Resource Management
This chapter covers key concepts related to Project Human Resource Management.
The knowledge area of Project Human Resource Management consists of the following processes -
Human Resource Management Processes
Process Project Phase Key Deliverables Plan Human Resource Management Planning Human Resource Plan Acquire Project Team Execution Project Staff assignments Develop Project Team Execution Team performance assessments Manage Project Team Execution Change requests
Plan Human Resource Management process involves identifying and documenting project roles and responsibilities. The table below gives the inputs, tools and techniques, and Outputs for the Plan Human Resource Management process -
Plan Human Resource Management Process
Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs Enterprise environmental factors Organization charts and
Human resource plan Organizational process assets Organizational Theory Activity resource requirements Networking
Acquire project team process involves identifying and obtaining the team necessary to execute the project. The table below gives the inputs, tools and techniques, and Outputs for the Acquire project team process -
Acquire project team process
Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs Project management plan Pre-assignment Project staff assignments Enterprise environmental factors Negotiation Resource calendars Organizational process assets Acquisition Project management plan updates Virtual teams
Develop project team process involves improving the competencies of the team members and improving teamwork between the team. The table below gives the inputs, tools and techniques, and Outputs for the Develop project team process -
Develop project team process
Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs Project staff assignment Interpersonal skills Team performance assessments Project management plan Training Enterprise environmental factors updates Resource calendars Team-building activities Ground rules Co-location Recognition and rewards
- Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) defines who does what. The Staffing Management Plan defines when will people get added and removed from the project.
- A Project Manager may yield authority over the project team in one of the following ways -
- Referent - project team knows the PM
- Formal Power - Power due to Project Managers position
- Technical Power - Project Manager has strong technical skills in the projects domain.
- Coercive Power - The project team is afraid of the power the Project Manager holds.
Conflicts in the team are caused due to the following reasons in decreasing order of occurrences.
- Project Priorities
- Technical Opinions
- Conflicts are best resolved by those in the team.
There are standard conflict resolution techniques available to resolve conflicts. These are (from
best to worst) -
- Problem Solving or Confrontation (look at the facts, analyze them and find a solution). This is an example of win-win situation.
- Compromising (Find the middle route). This is an example of loose-loose situation.
- Withdrawal or Avoidance
- Smoothing (Emphasize the agreements)
- Forcing (Do it my way). This is an example of win-loose situation.
- The process of problem solving has these steps -
- Define the cause of the problem
- Analyze the problem
- Identify solution
- Implement a decision
- Review the decision, and confirm that the problem is solved.
Manage project team process is the process of tracking team member performance and managing issues within the team. The table below gives the inputs, tools and techniques, and Outputs for the Manage project team process -
Manage project team process
Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs Project staff assignments Observation and conversation Enterprise environmental factors updates Project management plan Project performance appraisals Organizational process assets updates Team performance assets Conflict management Change requests Performance reports Issue log Project management plan updates Organizational process assets Interpersonal skills
- War room is a technique for team building. As part of this the project team meets in one room. It helps to create a project identity.
- Halo Effect is the assumption that because the person is good at a technology, he will be good as a project manager.
- There are many organizational theories. Some of the main ones are - Expectancy Theory, McGregory Theory, Herzberg Theory, Maslow's Hierarchy of needs.
- Expectancy Theory - People accept to be rewarded for their efforts. This is a motivation factor. People put in more efforts because they accept to be rewarded for their efforts.
- McGregory Theory of X and Y - There are two type of employees. Employees of type X need to be always watched. They cannot be trusted and need to be micro managed. Employees of type Y, on the other hand, are self-motivated. They can work independently.
- Herzberg Theory - Hygiene factors (salary, cleanliness etc.) if not present can destroy motivation. However good hygiene alone does not improve motivation. What motivates people is the work itself. The motivation factors for employees include responsibility, self-actualization, growth, recognition etc.
- Maslow's Hierarchy of needs - there are various levels of needs for an employee. When
a lower level is met, employee attempts to reach the next higher level. The maximum satisfaction is
achieved when the employee reaches the highest level of satisfaction - self-fulfillment. These level
of needs from the highest to lowest are -
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