Project Quality Management
This chapter covers key concepts related to Project Quality Management.
The knowledge area of Project Quality Management consists of the following processes -
Quality Management Processes
Process Project Phase Key Deliverables Plan Quality Managment Planning Quality Management Plan,
Perform Quality Assurance Execution Change Requests Perform Quality Control Monitoring and Controlling Quality control measurements
The process of Plan Quality Management includes defining quality requirements of the project and documenting how the project will ensure compliance. The ITTO of Plan Quality Management process are given below.
Plan Quality Process
Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs Scope baseline Cost-benefit analysis Quality management plan Stakeholder register Cost of quality Quality metrics Cost performance baseline Control charts Quality checklists Schedule baseline Benchmarking Process improvement plan Risk register Design of experiments Project document updates Enterprise environmental factors Stastical sampling Organizational process assets Flowcharting Proprietary quality management methodology Additional quality planning tools
- Grade refers to category or rank given to entities having same functional use but different technical characteristics. As an example, for different grades of hotels, the customers expectations are different. Poor grade may be acceptable, but poor quality is not.
- The aim of quality is to ensure "Conformance to requirements" and "fitness for use".
- Quality Policy defines the company goals and how to adhere to them. This acts as an input to Quality Planning for a project. Quality Policy is part of Organizational Process assets.
- Deming suggested a process of Plan-Do-Check-Act to improve quality. According to Deming, each process should go through these steps to improve the quality.
- Kaizen Theory - Apply continuous small improvements to reduce costs and ensure consistency.
- Marginal Analysis - You compare the cost of incremental improvements against the increase in revenue made from quality improvements. Optimal quality is reached when cost of improvements equals the costs to achieve quality.
The value of sigma of Normal Distribution are given below. These are important for the exam.
Normal Distribution Sigma values
Sigma Percentage covered One sigma 68.26% Two sigma 95.46% Three sigma 99.73% Six sigma 99.99%
- Giving extras i.e. doing more than the project scope is called gold-plating. PMI does not recommend gold-plating.
- Quality must be planned in and not inspected in. Prevention is more important than inspection.
Quality Assurance is done during execution of the project. It includes -
- Process of evaluating overall performance on a regular basis
- Re-evaluating quality standards
- Quality audits - structured review of quality activities that identify lessons learned. These lessons learned are used for process improvement.
ITTO of Perform Quality Assurance
Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs Project management plan Plan Quality and Perform Quality Control tools and techniques Organizational process updates Quality metrics Quality audits Change requests Work performance information Process analysis Project management plan updates Quality control measurements Project document updates
- Perform Quality Control focuses on correctness of work. It includes inspections. The inputs, tools and techniques and outputs (ITTO) used for Perform Quality Control process are -
ITTO of Perform Quality Control
Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs Project management plan Cause and effect diagram Quality control measurements Quality metrics Control charts Validated changes Quality checklists Flowcharting Validated deliverables Work performance measurements Histogram Organizational process assets updates Approved change requests Pareto chart Change requests Deliverables Run chart Project management plan updates Organizational process assets Scatter diagram Project document updates Statistical Sampling Inspection Approved change requests review
- In Just-In-Time (JIT) Quality, the amount of inventory is zero. The inputs are made available, just when they are required. This reduces the storage cost.
- Rule of seven : In control charts, if there are seven points on one side of mean, then an assignable cause must be found.
- The process of Analogous Estimation involves looking at the history of past projects, and use them to make estimates.
Based on the above table, we can see that in six sigma one out of 10,000 items can have defects. In three sigma, twenty seven out of 10,000 items can have defects.
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